Volume 6, Issue 2, June 2020, Page: 50-55
Phytochemical Analysis of Some Selected Indigenous Fruits Collected from Lokogoma-Abuja, Nigeria
Akilu Mariya, Life Sciences Division, Engineering and Space Systems Department, National Space Research and Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria
Abdulrasheed Hadiza Haruna, Life Sciences Division, Engineering and Space Systems Department, National Space Research and Development Agency, Abuja, Nigeria
Akilu Zakari Babangida, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
Received: Jul. 1, 2020;       Accepted: Jul. 14, 2020;       Published: Jul. 28, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.jdmp.20200602.14      View  143      Downloads  76
Abstract
Fruits, vegetables, and other plant-based foods are rich in bioactive phytochemicals that may provide desirable health benefits beyond basic nutrition to reduce the risk of the development of chronic diseases (Liu, 2004). This study focuses on determining the presence of phytochemical components in Citrillus lanatus (Watermelon), Musa acuminate (Banana), Psidium guajava (Guava) and Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato) samples collected from a location in Abuja, FCT. The set objectives were achieved using the standard laboratory procedures as sourced from literature. To determine the presence of phytochemical components responsible for the medicinal properties, a qualitative screening checking for ten (10) known phytochemicals was conducted for each fruit extract. The Phytochemicals screened for were Tannins, Saponins, Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Terpenes, Steroids, Phenols, Resins and Anthraquinones. All sampled fruit revealed the presence of a number of the phytochemicals checked, but no fruit sample tested positive for all phytochemicals tested. The Citrillus lanatus was the only sample to test positive for Flavonoids and negative for Anthraquinones. The phytochemicals found in these fruits have a wide range of therapeutic indications with a great variety of biological properties such as antioxidant, provitamin, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. The present data suggests that the crude ethanolic extracts of the sample fruits are potential sources of phytochemicals that could be of great importance to the health and nutrition of humans and in the treatment of various diseases.
Keywords
Phytochemicals, Citrillus Lanatus, Musa Acuminate, Psidium Guajava, Solanum Lycopersicum
To cite this article
Akilu Mariya, Abdulrasheed Hadiza Haruna, Akilu Zakari Babangida, Phytochemical Analysis of Some Selected Indigenous Fruits Collected from Lokogoma-Abuja, Nigeria, Journal of Diseases and Medicinal Plants. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2020, pp. 50-55. doi: 10.11648/j.jdmp.20200602.14
Copyright
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Oyedemi, S. O.; Bradley, G.; Afolayan, A. J. In vivo and in vitro antioxidant activities of aqueous stem bark extract of Strychnos henningsii (Gilg). Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol 2010, 4, 70-78.
[2]
Ali AA, Alqurainy F. Activities of antioxidants in plants under environmental stress. The lutein-prevention and treatment for diseases. 2006; 187-256.
[3]
Rehab A. Hussein and Amira A. El-Anssary, 2018. “Plants Secondary Metabolites: The Key Drivers of the Pharmacological Actions of Medicinal Plants”. November 5th 2018 DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.76139.
[4]
Watson, A. A., Fleet, G. W. J., Asano, N., Molyneux, R. J. and Nash, R. J. (2001). Poly-hydroxylated alkaloid -natural occurrence and therapeutic applications. Phytochemistry. 56: 265-295.
[5]
Patra AK. Dietary Phytochemicals and Microbes. ISBN 978-94-007-3925-3 ISBN 978-94- 007-3926-0 (eBook). 2012; Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg New York London.
[6]
C. Muthu, M. Ayyanar, N. Raja, and S. Ignacimuthu, “Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India,” Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, vol. 2, article 43, 2006.
[7]
A. Rizvi, A. Mishra, A. A. Mahdi, M. Ahmad, and A. Basit. “Natural and herbal stress remedies: a review,” International Journal of Pharmacognosy, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 155-160, 2015.
[8]
"Watermelon". Marketing Resource Center, US Department of Agriculture, Iowa State University. 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
[9]
"Top 10 ways to enjoy watermelon". Produce for Better Health Foundation, Centers for Disease Control, US National Institutes of Health. 2017. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
[10]
Ogodo, A. C.; Ugbogu, O. C.; Ugbogu, A. E.; Ezeonu, C. S. (2015). "Production of mixed fruit (pawpaw, banana and watermelon) wine using Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from palm wine". SpringerPlus. 4: 683. doi: 10.1186/s40064-015-1475-8.
[11]
Choudhary, B. R.; Haldhar, S. M.; Maheshwari, S. K.; Bhargava, R.; Sharma, S. K. Phytochemicals and Antioxidants in Watermelon (Citrullus Lanatus) Genotypes under Hot Arid Region. Indian J. Agric. Sci. 2015, 85, 414-417.
[12]
Ijah, U. J. J.; Ayodele, H. S.; Aransiola, S. A. Microbiological and Some Sensory Attributes of Watermelon Juice and Watermelon-Orange Juice Mix. J. Food Resour. Sci. 2015, 4, 49-61. DOI: 10.3923/jfrs.2015.49.61.
[13]
Romdhane, M. B.; Haddar, A.; Ghazala, I.; Jeddou, K. B.; Helbert, C. B.; Ellouz-Chaabouni, S. Optimization of Polysaccharides Extraction from Watermelon Rinds: Structure, Functional and Biological Activities. Food Chem. 2017, 216, 355-364. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.056.
[14]
Jumde, A. D.; Shukla, R. N.; Gousoddin. Development and Chemical Analysis of Watermelon Blends with Beetroot Juice during Storage. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2015, 4, 2395-4752.
[15]
Mohammad, Z. I., & Saleha, A. (2011). Musa paradisiaca L. and Musa sapientum L.: A Phytochemical and Pharmacological Review. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 01, 14-20.
[16]
Guyle`ne Aurorea, Berthe, P., & Louis, F. (2009). Bananas, raw materials for making processed food products. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 20, 78-91.
[17]
Gordon Edwards (2019). "About radioactive bananas" (PDF). Canadian Coalition for Nuclear Responsibility. Retrieved April 24, 2019.
[18]
Kraft S (August 4, 2011). "Bananas! Eating Healthy Will Cost You; Potassium Alone $380 per Year". Medical News Today. Archived from the original on October 25, 2014. Retrieved October 25, 2014.
[19]
Pereira, A., Maraschin, M. (2015). Banana (Musa spp) from peel to pulp: Ethno-pharmacology, source of bioactive compounds and its relevance for human health. Journal of Ethno-pharmacology, 160: 149-163.
[20]
Singh, B., Singh, J. P., Kaur, A., Singh, N. (2016). Bioactive compounds in banana and their associated health benefits - A review. Food Chemistry, 206: 1-11.
[21]
Jiwan S Sidhu, Tasleem A Zafar. “Bioactive compounds in banana fruits and their health benefits”. Food Quality and Safety, Volume 2, Issue 4, December 2018, Pages 183-188.
[22]
Judd, WS; Campbell, CS; Kellogg, EA; Stevens, PF; Donoghue, MJ (2002). Plant systematics, a phylogenetic approach. Sinauer Associates, Inc. pp. 398-399. ISBN 0878934030.
[23]
Uzzaman S, Akanda KM, Mehjabin S, Parvez GMM. A short review on a nutritional fruit: guava. Opn Acc Tox Res. 2018; 1: 1-8.
[24]
De Boer HJ, Cotingting C (2014). "Medicinal plants for women's healthcare in southeast Asia: a meta-analysis of their traditional use, chemical constituents, and pharmacology". J Ethnopharmacol. 151 (2): 747-67. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.030. PMID 24269772.
[25]
Shaik Shaheena, Anjani Devi Chintagunta, Vijaya Ramu Dirisala and N. S. Sampath Kumar. “Extraction of bioactive compounds from Psidium guajava and their application in dentistry.” AMB Expr 9, 208 (2019). doi.org/10.1186/s13568-019-0935-x.
[26]
Sravani D, Aarathi K, Sampath Kumar NS, Krupanidhi S, VijayaRamu D, Venkateswarlu TC. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica and Manilkara zapota leaf extract. RJPT. 2015; 8: 1477-1480.
[27]
Naidu NK, Vijaya Ramu V, Sampath Kumar NS. Anti-inflammatory and anti-helminthic activity of ethanolic extract of Azadirachta indica leaves. IJGP. 2016; 10: S1-S4.
[28]
Raju NV, Sukumar K, Babul Reddy G, Pankaj PK, Muralitharan G, Annapareddy S, Sai DT, Chintagunta AD. In-vitro studies on anti-tumor and antimicrobial activities of methanolic kernel extract of Mangifera Indica L. cultivar Banganapalli. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2019; 12: 357-362. doi: 10.13005/bpj/1648.
[29]
Self-Nutrition Data, 2018. “Guavas, Common, raw Nutrition Facts and Calories”. https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/fruits-and-fruit-juices/1927/2.
[30]
Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb YB, Varvara G, Murmura G, et al., 2013. Role of vitamins D, E and C in immunity and inflammation. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2013; 27 (2): 291-295.
[31]
"Tomato". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 4 January 2018. Retrieved 15 January 2014.
[32]
Adda Bjarnadottir, 2019. “Tomatoes 101: Nutrition Facts and Health Benefits”. Healthline Nutrition. March 25, 2019. https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/foods/tomatoes
[33]
Erica N. Story, Rachel E. Kopec, Steven J. Schwartz and G. Keith Harris, 2010. An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2010; 1: 189-210.
[34]
Ware Megan, 2017. “Everything you need to know about tomatoes”. Medical News Today. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/273031.
[35]
Poonam Chaudhary, Ashita Sharma, Balwinder Singh and Avinash Kaur Nagpal. Bioactivities of Phytochemicals present in Tomato. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2018; 55 (8): 2833-2849.
[36]
Rafi MM, Yadav PN, Reyes M. Lycopene inhibits LPS-induced pro-inflammatory mediator inducible nitric oxide synthase in mouse macrophage cells. J Food Sci. 2007; 72 (1): S069-S074.
[37]
Scolastici C, de Lima RA, Barbisan LF, Ferreira ALDA, Ribeiro DA, Salvadori DMF. Lycopene activity against chemically induced DNA damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007; 21 (5): 840-845.
[38]
Scolastici C, de Lima RA, Barbisan LF, Ferreira ALDA, Ribeiro DA, Salvadori DMF. Antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity of lycopene in HepG2 cell line evaluated by the comet assay and micronucleus test. Toxicol In Vitro. 2008; 22 (2): 510-514.
[39]
Polívková Z, Šmerák P, Demová H, Houška M. Antimutagenic effects of lycopene and tomato purée. J Med Food. 2010; 13 (6): 1443-1450.
[40]
Feng D, Ling WH, Duan RD. Lycopene suppresses LPS-induced NO and IL-6 production by inhibiting the activation of ERK, p38MAPK, and NF-κB in macrophages. Inflamm Res. 2010; 59 (2): 115-121.
[41]
Sofowora, A., 1993. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd Edn. Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria, ISBN-13: 9782462195, Pages: 289.
[42]
Geissmann, T. A.: The Chemistry of Flavonoid Compounds; Pergamon Press, Oxford, London, New York, Paris; 1962; VIII.
[43]
Prod, J. N., Resour, P., Zohra, S. F., Meriem, B., Samira, S., and Alsayadi, M. (2012) ‘Phytochemical Screening and identification of some compounds from Mallow’, 2 (4), pp. 512-516.
[44]
Sofowora, A., 1996. Medicinal Plant and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd Edn. Spectrum Books, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 112.
[45]
Liu RH. Potential synergy of phytochemicals in cancer prevention: mechanism of action. J Nutr. 2004; 134: 3479S-85S.
Browse journals by subject